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Реферат Icons and their effect on Russian people

and their effect on Russian people

Ruslan Pavlenko

For many centuries religious icons played an important role in the lives of the Russian Orthodox people and stretch far back into medieval times. This significance can not be underestimated and it would be erroneous to assume the history of Russia without icons. To this day the icon has a plethora of functions in the fields of religion, history, warfare, and anthropology. In the modern Slavic world the icon may gradually start to lose popularity in the younger generation, but those who hold on to the past traditions know the value of an icon. These holy images were carried into battle in hopes of defeating the foes, protecting people from a possible curse, granted the wishes of those who asked, and performed miracles of healing. The icon in all of its forms left an imperishable outcome in the history of Russia. However, it is crucial to know its origins to understand the icons and their universal effects.Russian word icon (ікона), comes from a Greek word that means portrait raquo ;. However it is not stated in the usual sense of the word. The individuals portrayed in these images were saints: Apostles, Martyrs, Jesus Christ and The Virgin Mary. Any other persons who were distinguished for spiritual matters in their life or died a tragic death could have been later treated as a saint (lsa.umich.edu). The first images were produces by early Christians who were religiously oppressed by the Romans. As a consequence they were painted on the walls of the catacombs, where the early Christians were forced to hide. By tradition Apostle Luke is regarded to be the first one who started painting icons. The oldest icons that have survived to the modern day are dated to around the fifth and sixth century. New images on the icons were introduced rarely and the newly painted ones were generally copies from the original icons called podlinniki (оригінали). The artists behind those icons didn t have much creative input on what was to appear on the icon since there was a curtain canon, a set of adopted rules in which the icons were executed. The creative input could be applied to the way in which the icons were portrayed and to the quality of the work. Theophanes the Greek is one of the famous icon painting masters of the 14 th century who was celebrated for his technique and memory in the icon painting. Unfortunately the only remaining work by him is a fresco located in Novgorod. Andrei Rublev was Russia s most praised medieval icon painter. He also happened to work under Theophanes for a period of time.time icons found their way into many aspects of everyday life. Some of them would be passed down in the family, just like an heirloom ring in the western tradition. The so called beautiful or red corner was a designated place in the house where one or more icons would be placed. Usually they were not hung but were rested upon a shelf with embroidery hanging off the sides. This designated space was the place where the prayers would be said. Such prayers could take a form of a petition for pardon of sins, a prayer of gratitude, a plea for healing of a loved one or to give a blessing and protection. Many of the icons have specific prayers that are prescribed to each icon and are meant to grant an appropriate plea to those who ask. There is a set of guidelines for placing such icons if they are arranged in a home iconostasis: which is a row of icons usually separated from one another. By convention the top row is occupied by the icon of the Trinity since it is revered as one of the most important ones. The next row is ought to be a series of major icons: the Lord Jesus Christ and the Virgin Mary. Below that is the series of angels; such as the Guardian Angel. Last but not least are the icons of the Saints. Due to the sheer diversity of saint icons, those are usually placed at the will of the owner (zograf). It does not come as a surprise to see a small version of icons hanging in public transportation: taxis, busses, and even trains. icon religion spiritual transformation the other side there were times of tribulation for the icons and those who venerated them. During the 7 th and 8 th centuries in the Byzantine Empire, the world of Christianity was faced with a problem of iconoclasm (іконоборство). It was a widespread rejection of any sacred or religious images. The icons were seen as heretical and therefore ordered to be destroyed (art.1september). This came from the interpretation of one of the Ten Commandments, which forbade worshiping or making of any images, thus seen is idols. Any supporters of the icons were persecuted as well. Fortunately the icon and the traditions surrounding it outlived this struggle.the early state of Christianity, t...

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