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Реферат The Israeli-Lebanese conflict

Israeli-Lebanese conflict


The Israeli-Lebanese conflict describes a series of related military clashes involving Israel <, Lebanon <, and various non-state militias < acting from within Lebanon. The conflict started in 1948 < with Israel's declaration of independence < and is still continuing to this day. There is no peace treaty between Israel and Lebanon. The conflict is a part of the wider Arab-Israeli conflict <.

In 1948, the Lebanese army had by far the smallest regional army, consisting of only 3,500 soldiers. At the prompting of Arab leaders in the region Lebanon agreed to join the other armies that were being assembled around the perimeter of the British Mandate territory of Palestine for the purpose of invading Palestine. Lebanon committed 1,000 of these soldiers to the cause. The Arab armies waited for the end of the Mandate and the withdrawal of British forces, which was set for March 15 <, 1948 <.

Israel declared its independence < on May 14 <, 1948 <. Almost immediately, Egypt <, Lebanon <, Syria <, Transjordan <, and Iraq < declared war on the new state. They expected an easy and quick victory in what came to be called the 1948 Arab-Israeli War <. The Lebanon army joined the other Arab armies in the invasion. It crossed into the northern Galilee <. By the end of the conflict, however, it had been repulsed by Israeli forces, which occupied South Lebanon until an armistice agreement < was signed on 23 March < 1949 <. [2] < Israel forces withdrew to the international border.

1. 1982 Lebanon war, Israeli occupation (June 6, 1982-January 1985)


The 1982 Lebanon war < began 6 June <, when Israel invaded again for the purpose of retaliation attacking the Palestine Liberation Organization <. During the conflict, 14,000 Lebanese and Palestinians were killed, and the Israeli army sieged Beirut <. Fighting also occurred between Israel and Syria <. The United States <, fearing a widening conflict and the prestige the siege was giving PLO leader Yasser Arafat <, got all sides to agree to a cease-fire and terms for the PLO's withdrawal on 12 August <. The predominantly muslim Multinational Force in Lebanon < arrived to keep the peace and ensure PLO withdrawal. Arafat retreated from Beirut on 30 August < 1982 < and settled in Tunisia <.

The National Assembly of Lebanon < narrowly chose Bachir Gemayel < as president-elect <, but when he was assassinated on 14 September < 1982 <, Israel reoccupied West Beirut and Maronite militias carried out the Sabra and Shatila massacre <.

In 1983, the United States brokered the May 17 Agreement <, a peace treaty between Israel and Lebanon in all but name. The agreement called for a staged Israeli withdrawal over the next eight to twelve weeks and the establishment of a "security zone" to be patrolled by the Lebanese army in southern Lebanon, but was conditional on Syrian withdrawal as well. In August 1983, as Israel withdrew from the areas southeast of Beirut to the Awali River, Lebanese factions clashed for control of the freed territory. p> In February 1984, the Lebanese Army < collapsed, with many units forming their own militias. The National Assembly of Lebanon, under pressure from Syria and Muslim militias, cancelled the May 17 < Agreement...

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