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Реферат Australia: detail about the country


from the Indian Ocean to the central part of Pacific Ocean, cover a vast area of ??our planet. However, because a large part of their territory is ocean, they have a relatively small population. Australia area is much larger, so that it is considered a continent. Oceania consists of thousands much smaller islands scattered in the Pacific. They share of three groups: Micronesia, Melanesia and Polynesia, which includes the large island of New Zealand. Islands in the Pacific are two types: high, with rugged terrain; and coral atolls. Many of Pacific s islands are very small and we can t see them in different maps .. This name got for many islands in the Pacific from borders of Asia and Indian Ocean to borders of America. Now Australia is island continent and Tasmania Island; every other islands is Oceania.is the continent, which is equal in magnitude to the United States. but here population is less than in Texas. Vast and arid interior regions of the country, mainly deserts and grasslands are considered sparsely populated, uninhabited areas. These areas are used for grazing sheep and a huge number of cattle, but they are almost uninhabited. Many Australians live in cities and suburbs along the eastern, south-eastern and south-western coasts, where the climate is temperate and land is fertile. Many Australians are natives and aborigines. They live in the cities but many of them, hold old traditions and stay in sparsely populated parts of the country.- A combination of exotic wildlife and sparkling super modern cities. Wonderful country roads, infinite ocean beaches and coral reefs. The main attraction of Australia - Great Barrier Reef, a UNESCO World Heritage Site of the United Nations, with its world-renowned resort island - is the best place in the world for diving and yachting.has become a dynamic and important component of the Australian economy. To find out exactly what attracts tourists to Australia, and what factors in the development of tourism in this country must be detailed economic and geographical characteristics of the region.

1. History of Discovery

Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun between 42,000 and 48,000 years ago, possibly with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now South-East Asia. These first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. At the time of European settlement in the late 18th century, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers, with a complex oral culture and spiritual values ??based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturalists and hunter-gatherers. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.

The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, and made landfall on 26 February at the Pennefather River near the modern town of Weipa on Cape York.British settlement was established in Van Diemen's Land, now known as Tasmania, in +1803 and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the western part of Western Australia (the Swan River Colony) in 1828. Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales: South Australia in тисяча вісімсот тридцять шість, Victoria in 1851, and Queensland in 1859. The Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia. South Australia was founded as a «free province» - it was never a penal colony. Victoria and Western Australia were also founded «free», but later accepted transported convicts. A campaign by the settlers of New South Wales led to the end of convict transportation to that colony; the last convict ship arrived in +1848.

Britain s Statute of Westminster 1 931 formally ended most of the constitutional links between Australia and the UK. Australia adopted it in 1942 року, but it was backdated to +1939 to confirm the validity of legislation passed by the Australian Parliament during World War II. The shock of the United Kingdom s defeat in Asia in тисячі дев'ятсот сорок два and the threat of Japanese invasion caused Australia to turn to the United States as a new ally and protector. Since 1951 Australia has been a formal military ally of the US, under the ANZUS treaty. After World War II Australia encouraged immigration from Europe. Since the 1970s and following the abolition of the White Australia policy, immigration from Asia and elsewhere was also promoted. As a res...

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