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Реферат Roman Catholic labor movement in Grodno province (last third of XIX - beginning of 20 century.)

Roman Catholic labor movement in Grodno province

(last third of XIX - beginning of XX century)

There was nothing surprising in the fact that the Roman Catholic Church in the person of Pope Leo XIII addressed the issue of working relationships with owners, employers. The spirit of revolutionary change has gone beyond the economy, and its influence felt in politics, culture and religion. Epistle of the Roman Pope Leo XIII "On the situation of workers "on May 15, 1891, also known as the encyclical" Rerum novarum ", was a response to the challenge of modernity, primarily directed against the Socialists, who thought to destroy private property with the transfer of personal property under the jurisdiction State or local authorities. The Church tried to make physic through the establishment of Catholic workers ' associations, fraternities, unions. And the predecessors of the Christian societies, church workers called pre-existing fraternity society with religious institutions, and monastic orders [1, pp. 20]. p> Working in the archives of Grodno, have discovered that in 1886 there were g. Belostoke guild Brotherhood of the following workshops: carpenter, blacksmith and metal worker, who had a charter granted to them in 1759 by Count Jan Branitsky Clemens and his wife, written Polish on parchment. Diploma was defined as the cost of entering the shop and other charges, and therefore, according to literacy, in every shop had a separate stored in the selected workshop fiduciary account, which were made by craftsmen and apprentices fees, no more than one ruble three months. Of the total collection took place the following expenses: funeral of each of the insolvent master, his wife and children, masters granting benefits to priiskaniya work in the shops to buy candles, which are used in the memorial church service for the dead masters. In addition, each of these departments had banners that are stored in a local church and are in full possession of the clergy [2, pp.31]. Bialystok guild of the Roman Catholic fraternity twice a year, ordered the Liturgy: the opening day of workshops and a funeral in memory of the deceased shop [2, pp.7].

In 1886, the tsarist police were able to identify and close following of brotherhood: Gozhskom church in Grodno district, established 40 years ago and has 18 members, with church Mezhirechskom Volkovysk County, numbering 8 peasants in Grodno Bernardine Church Fellowship of the brick plant, has 36 members, plant woodcutters and brotherhood that existed more than 20 years, with 34 members, with Ross Fellowship Church, which consisted of 14 peasants in the Bryansk church Belsky County brotherhood tanners, blacksmiths, shoemakers [2, pp.12, 20, 53]. Up to 1863 active in the fraternity were Slonim cobbler, carpenter, paint and blacksmith shops, based on the literacy of King John Casimir. By 1887 among these brotherhoods continued to exist only to collect money, but not in a certain amount, but depending on the state, when issuing certificates of title of master and apprentice. Expenditures from this collection were made at the discretion of the craft to the needs of elders only belonging to the shops, in most cases, the organization of banquets [2, pp.39-40].

Revolution 1905-1907 gg. opened up new opportunities for organized labor. April 3, 1907 in the register of societies and unions in the Grodno province had been made "Christian Workers 'Union. In this society, working as composed out of the political parties, all sorts of political debate excluded. Activities of the society spread to Grodno province [3, pp.1]. Founding members of this organization were as follows: Stepan Yulyanovich Pushkevich, Adam Osipovich Artsipievsky, Ignatius Osipovich Prokopchik, Leonard Arutkowski, Ignatius Ignatievich Dashuta, Valerian Petrovich Sacra - all born in Grodno. Chairman of the society was a priest Stanislaw Bernice [3, pp.1, 42]. At the invitation of Chairman of the society began to buy into his library books, newspapers and magazines in Russian and Polish languages ​​[3, pp.43]. During the existence of the library was donated 480 volumes of books, which resulted in the order of a board member of B. Sacra [3, pp.54, 105]. p> Union members were divided on the real, honorable and sorevnovateley. The real member of society could become every honest, sober behavior of worker-Christian. Honorary Fellow - the man who once brought the benefit of society 50 rubles, or doing any other substantial donation. Member-sorevnovatelem - who every year brought into the public treasury three rubles. Wishing to enter in the number of actual members of the organization was obliged to apply to the Board of society and provide a guarantee of two full members. Name of the candidate and the sign was to be guarantors in the Company premises within two weeks. The protest by members of ...

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