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Реферат Pravomonarhist movement

"Pravomonarhicheskoe: movement

in Belarus (1905 - 1914 gg)

One of the most influential trends in Russia's socio-political movement of the early XX century was a conservative-protective or right-monarchist. The ideological foundations of Russia's conservatives had been laid earlier, but the institutionalization of the supporters of "escort" of traditional institutions comes at a time when Russia seized the revolutionary elements. The answer to the radicalization of society was to consolidate the social forces, spoke in support of autocratic power. Across the country, have appeared numerous reactionary organization. Among them are emerged in St. Petersburg society to actively fight against the revolution and anarchy, the Society of Russian patriots in Moscow, Russian Brotherhood in Kiev, the Patriotic Society in Tiflis, the tsarist-popular Russian society in Kazan, the Union "white flag" in Nizhny Novgorod and Dozens of other monarchist organizations, who called the people to fight the revolution.

The most significant pravomonarhicheskimi associations, which researchers often refer to political parties were "Russian assembly "," Russian Monarchist Party, the Union of Russian people " and "Union of Russian People. Their software and statutory positions were practically identical. The main aim, they saw "the development of Russian national identity and a strong association of the Russian people of all classes and conditions of work for the common benefit of our dear motherland - Russia one and indivisible "[1, pp.35]. Ideologues of conservatism advocated own way of development of Russia, against the extension of Russia's ground of liberal Western values ​​and democracy. They defended the then existing political, socio-economic, religious, spiritual and domestic foundations of Russia's life. Into the sacred preservation of Orthodoxy, autocracy, and unlimited Russian national championships, they saw the benefit of Russia.

In 1906 - 1908 gg. pravomonarhicheskoe movement becomes the most massive socio-political trend. More than 200 towns and villages of Russia empire acted monarchist organization. However, statistics on the Black Hundreds in different sources differ. It is estimated that the Police Department, at that time there were about 410 thousand people. Modern scholar Yu Kir'yanov put the figure at 399.5 thousand people [2, pp.31]. Themselves as Black Hundreds numbers in its ranks a greater number of like-minded people - up to three million people, given as active participants in the movement, and passive - those who shared the ideology of the movement, as well as those who served in close to the Black Hundreds of local associations, such as Orthodox Brotherhood, the Society horugvonostsev, temperance societies, etc. These differences relate to the fact that virtually all the then Party of Russia had the vague criteria for membership.

It should also be noted most vsesoslovny character pravomonarhicheskogo movement that set him apart from parties and organizations of liberal and radical left orientation. It was attended by workers and peasants, artisans and tradesmen, merchants and intellectuals, clergy and nobles, servants. In this leadership role in the movement played by the representatives of the Russian Orthodox clergy and the Russian national intelligentsia.

Main Vserossiiskoi pravomonarhicheskoy organization (the party) was the "Union of Russian People" (NRC), formed in St. Petersburg on Nov.8, 1905 His department acted in most provinces of Russia empire. The most active they have been represented in Belarus and Ukraine, where much was the influence of anti-Russian forces: there were more than half of all members of the NRC. For example, in Belarus NRC offices operated in 36 towns and numbered in its ranks about 29.5 thousand members [3, pp.41]. Thus, in the Vilna province acted 2 organizations (1000), Vitebsk - 9 (10071), Grodno - 3 (900), Minsk 15 (4420), Mogilev - 20 (11652) [4, pp.96]. p> In addition to offices of the Union of Russian People in Belarus operated ideological kinship NRC organizations such as Society "Peasant", founded in late 1905, and emerged in 1906, "Russian suburban Union", which was later reorganized as the "Russian margins of society. "In 1908, a split society," peasant "emerged "The Belarusian society", which included representatives of the intelligentsia, civil servants and peasants. Around the same time in Minsk, has become one organization operate more right-wing "Orthodox Brotherhood, and in Grodno and Vitebsk were working party branches "of the right order." In 1910, in Grodno was created "Russian National Union of Grodno province" [5, pp.270 - 271]. p> In general, all pravomonarhicheskie organizations of Belarus, despite some differences, stood on the positions of "Zapadnorusizma", believing that...

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