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Реферат Formation and development of political parties in the Republic of Belarus

Formation and development of political parties in the Republic of Belarus

The formation of a multiparty system in Belarus, as in other former Soviet republics, was due to several factors: the crisis of economic and political system of Soviet society, the collapse of the Soviet Union and the fall in prestige of the CPSU, reducing the influence of communist ideology, belief in the unsuitability of a one-party system, enhancement, especially in among intellectuals, social democratic and liberal ideas, proclaiming the sovereignty of the Republic of Belarus and discussions about the choice of paths of development. p> In fact, the beginning of the formation of political parties in Belarus associated with the emergence and formation in 1986-1987. kinds of discussion clubs and informal organizations ("talaq," Legacy "," Tuteishya "," Martyralog Belarus ", etc.). p> In October 1988 on the basis of informal associations was created orgkomit Belarusian Popular Front (BPF) for the restructuring of the "Revival", the constituent assembly which was held in June 1989 in Vilnius. After Congress II (March 1991, Minsk), Belarusian Popular Front was transformed into a party with a vertical organizational structure, individual membership, the payment of contributions to the formation of their cells in the labor collectives.

In terms of social upheaval the early 1990's., Complex socio-economic processes, confrontation of power and opposition forces to form political parties of various ideological directions, formed a multiparty system. In 1991, the republic actually existed several parties, including the Communist Party of Belarus and stood in opposition to it. p> In August 1991, after the failed coup GKChP Supreme Council of the Republic of Belarus has suspended the activities of the Communist Party of Belarus. In December 1991, was established the Belarusian Communist Party (BCP) was incorporated in May 1992 In February 1993, Parliament reversed its decision to suspend the activities of CPB, after which the republic there were two Communist parties.

An important role in shaping the party system in the country played a presidential election in July 1994, and the Law "On political parties", adopted by the Supreme Soviet of Belarus in October 1994, the Law for the first time in the history of the Belarusian legislation was laid down procedure for the formation and activities of political parties. Based on the Law of the minimum number of members required to register a political party, was increased from 100 to 500 people. After the law "On political parties" (1994) by virtue of their re-registration was carried out, which passed all 24 existing at that time the political parties.

After the referendum in 1996 and the dissolution of the Supreme Soviet of the 13th convocation of the number of political parties in the republic fell, was an intense process of reorganization. However, some parties were registered only on paper, were not among the population of serious social support, organizational units in the field, did not conduct any work. According to the decision of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Belarus were considered inactive Humanitarian Party, the Belarusian Research and Production Congress, the Belarusian Party of "cleansing", the Belarusian Party of Beer Lovers, etc. p> On the formation of a multiparty system in Belarus has a significant impact Decree of the President of the Republic of Belarus of 26 January 1999 "On some measures to regulate the activities of political parties, trade unions and associations, under which was held to re-registration. The decree has increased the minimum number of party members required for registration, with 500 to 1000 from the majority of oblasts and Minsk. As a result of the 28 existing at the time of the issuance of the Decree of political parties were reregistered 17. In 2007, the country's Supreme Court ruled to liquidate the Belarusian Ecological Green Party "BEZ" and the Belarusian Party of Women "Nadzeya". p> Thus, at present (May 2008), the party system in Belarus includes 15 officially registered political parties.

Depending on your political orientation, ideologies, attitudes towards statehood of the republic, to the problems of national and cultural revival of the Belarusian party can be divided into several groups.

The first group includes the "Left" parties: the Communist Party of Belarus (CPB), the Agrarian Party, Belarusian Patriotic Party, the Republican Party of Labor and Justice, Communist Party of Belarus (PCB). These parties uphold the socialist path of development, the establishment of systematic and state-regulated commodity-money relations. In the social sphere, they stand for the right to work, to provide free secondary and higher education, free medical care, decent housing, accessible recreation, social justice, welfare and s...

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