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Реферат The emergence of the first Polish socialist parties

The emergence of the first Polish socialist parties

and their activities on the territory of Belarus

before the first Russian revolution

At the end of XIX century underwent a process of intensive development of Polish society, the establishment of the Polish nation. It was the active struggle of the Poles for the preservation of national identity in the absence of their own statehood. This process has faced in Russia and Imperial Germany in the opposite process - the unification of their own state organisms - and the attendant process of Russification and Germanization. Polish socialist socio-political movement in the territory of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, that Belarus and Lithuania, one of the main ideological objectives, along with the idea of ​​world revolution, considered the national association of Polish forces in the struggle for national self-preservation [4, pp. 19]. During this period, is beginning to emerge of the socialist system of the Polish political parties, which in its programs reflect the economic, political, cultural and religious aspirations of the Polish working class, in particular, and in the Belarusian-Lithuanian lands [7, pp.49].

The development of the Polish working class and socialist movement in Belarus has been primarily associated with the process of industrialization, development of industry and the increasing number of workers. However, it is worth noting that the Polish socialist movement mainly in Belarus was presented first national intellectuals and the nobility and the very limited electoral, working the same movement as opposed to build on the work of trade unions and had a massive character. However, the socialist parties sought to lead the labor movement. The specificity of the Polish workers and socialist movement in Russia Empire, and in Belarus, in particular, was that the party had to operate underground. These conditions affect the content of party programs, which aim to accomplishment of the socialist revolution in Russia [25, pp.127].

Before the form of political party, the Polish workers and the socialist movement has passed the phase of socialist circles of self-organized students, workers and intellectuals under the influence of Russia's revolutionary thought of the Populists and lobbied socialist ideas among workers. In the late 70's. XIX century. these groups were organized into structures characteristic of the political parties [6, pp.56].

In 1878 in Warsaw, was developed by the first program of the Polish Socialist-Revolutionaries. Her sponsor was Ludwik Waryƒskiego [9, pp.5]. Program primarily was based on Marxism. In the works of historians, this program is known as the "Brussels Program". It outlined the basic tenets of the Party: the social revolution of the means of production, social equality. The importance of international co-workers to fight for their rights. The national idea was not seen as the main, since the main task of the commission considered the world socialist revolution, after which the nation-state will disappear. Significant impact on the Brussels program had the idea of ​​M. Bakunin, promoted to replace the existing structure of society "production associations" [26, pp.33].

Polish workers 'socialist movement before the first Russian Revolution 1905 - 1907 gg. Belarus was represented by the following parties: I and II of the proletariat, the Union of Polish workers, Polish Socialist Party (PPP), the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania (SDKP and L) [22, pp.12]. p> I proletariat - International Social Revolutionary Party "proletariat" was the first Polish working-class party. One of the founders of the party was Ludwik WaryЖ’skiego. In September 1882, the working committee, which included A. Dembsky, G. Dulemba. S. Kunitsky and others [21, pp.84], published a political program, which was a continuation of the Brussels program. It reviewed the main provisions of the Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, adapted to the realities of the Kingdom of Poland [20, pp.112].

Software requirements of the Party formulated in three sections, each of which corresponded to a specific area of public life: economic, political and spiritual. The main economic demands were:

1). nationalization of the basic means of production, including land,

2). abolition of private property, wage labor.

The political demands were:

1). elimination of the autocracy, and 2). establishment of democracy, and 3). equality of religions, and 4). freedom of speech, association and assembly.

Main spiritual demands were:

1). compulsory free education 2). separation of church and state [7, pp.214].

Since its inception, 25 Socialist Party published pamphlets and abo...

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