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Реферат Transport & environmental policy (EU)


Our modern world is heading towards creation of more and more regional blocks in order to achieve greater stability and prosperity in all areas. The European Union, one of the strongest regional blocks, has its economic policies as its main concern how to achieve stronger cooperation, integration and prosperity within the organization. The main discussion of this paper will be the EU Transport and Environmental policy. The main purpose of this essay is to introduce main concepts and workings of both policies separately and then evaluate how these are applied in reality. However the main concepts based on the previously mentioned ideas will be to stress out the importance or need of both policies and what have been their major successes and failures so far. At the end the main task will be to analyze and make a conclusion, for both policies together, what should be done better and what would be the possible directions of those in the future. br/> Transport Policy

For the EU's goal to have an efficient and dynamic economy and cohesive society the crucial issue is to move goods and people as quickly, cheaply and efficiently as possible. This concept is reflected by proper transport policy. The basis of the Transport policy within EU is reflected in articles 74 to 84 of the Treaty of Rome (1957). These articles set the rules that call for the following points: common set of rules that would govern the transport policy within EU; for promotion of public transport services there have to be state aids to support it; to have as low costs as possible; introduce several means of transport (road, water, sea and air transport). Why it is actually important to have an effective transport policy within the EU? The main reason for this is, that transport as a growing industry has a significant importance in the economy of the EU. In other words if EU wants to have a integrated and prosperous economy it has to built up an effective transport system. Therefore the main concern of transport with regards to the economy involves several important aspects: support the process of Single Market; promote sustainable development; creating appropriate infrastructure to reduce disparity among regions; provide and improve safety; establish relations with third countries etc. At the end it is also important to mention that EU system of transport does not necessarily stop at EU borders, it might continue even further if a non member country has an agreement with the EU concerning the transport issues. br/>

Over time the demand of transport means and services has changed rapidly within EU. There were several factors contributing to such changes: shifting of manufacturing away from many of originally urban sites; the great increase in sector of services; greater mobility among professional people; increase in incomes therefore more use of transport is created etc. What this change actually means in reality? Firstly, the new transporting network (beginning of 20th century) was created and is used by all states apart from Spain. Secondly, in general since last two decades there has been major increase in transport, which created a new mobility within the EU. The transport of passengers increased over 85% (fastest change in air transport). However despite many disadvantages (pollution, traffic jams etc.) Road transport has achieved the greater increase and currently dominates in the area of transport means.

By the completion of Single Market the transport policy was heading towards the advancement. The main concern, again, was to create a set of rules where within the Single Market the transport would be efficiently provided and also the competition would be present as well. The main worries concerning the Single Market issue were not to allow the creation of monopolies, not distorting competition, managing of structural changes and ensuring that all means of transport will cover their costs (even causing the environmental damage). These issues were more or less solved but mainly two issues have been the center of debate concerning the impact of Single Market. The first one is the road haulage, mainly because it is the most common of means how to transfer goods. The second is the civil aviation (which grows constantly) and is the main means of passengers 'long-distance travelling. br/>

The road haulage is one of the major concerns of the EU transport policy because it is the major means of transporting goods within the region. Firstly, this area has been the main concern for the transport policy mainly because it is the most important mode of transport and both "International and domestic freight transport have been subjected to a variety of controls and restrictions in terms of prices and entry into market "(Barnes, Barnes 84). How much restricted control is applied varies from one country to another. For exampl...

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