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Реферат The emergence of the first Polish socialist parties

ut 20 leaflets. The party had its own press organs: the clandestine newspaper "Poletariat" (Warsaw), a legal newspaper, Robotnik (Krakow), a legal newspaper, Pshedsvit "(Geneva), the theoretical journal "Valka klyas" (Geneva) [10, pp.39].

Largest party cells were in Warsaw, Lodz, Modlin, St. Petersburg, Moscow. On the territory of the five provinces of the largest Belarusian party cells I proletariat is in Pinsk, Vilna, Bialystok [15, pp.59].

I Proletariat Party positioned itself prominent parties. She ignored the national question, but the main purpose was to unite the party workers in the struggle against autocracy and protect the interests of the working class, as well as their organization in the struggle for socialism [3, pp.211].

The ultimate goal of the party was a future socialist state, which should happen with the help of the world socialist revolution. The solution of these installations was planned to conduct with the economic and political struggle. The main means of economic struggle - the strike, the creation of illegal organizations working in the factories. The political struggle was conducted with the help of terrorist acts against class enemies.

I proletariat actively cooperated with Russia's revolutionaries, organized strikes at enterprises and made attempts of individual terror. In 1884, as a result of seizures and was beheaded in 1886, was completely destroyed [11, pp.314].

After the destruction I Proletarian Polish socialist movement was dropped to the level of intellectuals circles of self. Further strengthening the labor movement in Russia has pushed some Polish socialist circles of attempts to create socialist party. In 1888 was created the Polish Social-Revolutionary Party of the proletariat, dubbed II proletariat. Leader of the party was Martin Kasprshak [16, pp.34].

Program II of the proletariat, despite the fact that also relied on the basic tenets of Marxism, has undergone major changes. Given the growth of the Polish national identity in the program was a requirement for the autonomy of the Polish lands. Party to achieve its goals focused on terror, because of what not acquired influence among the workers [5, pp.57].

Ideological differences led to a split within the party, leaving in 1889 a breakaway group of party functionaries created the Union of Polish workers. The main objective of the Union was the organization of mass labor movement. SBP Program has relied on two postulates: the struggle for social rights of workers in and out of illegality, the denial of terror and the transition to mass agitation and education among the workers [24, pp.449].

Growing in the Kingdom of the Polish workers and socialist movement increasingly began to exaggerate, under the influence of the emigre community, separatist slogans. Gradually the idea of world revolution in the circles of the Polish Socialist intellectuals gives way to program the postulate of the struggle for a sovereign and independent Poland. Independence should have been, according to the leaders of the Polish Socialist movement, appear key to the future of democratic transformations [18, pp.59].

In November 1892 in Paris, was created Abroad Association of Polish Socialists (LAVS), and the program was approved the struggle for independence, developed Boleslav Limanowa, Stanislav Mendelssohn, Felix Pearl [7, pp.212]. They were dropped the idea of ​​world revolution and the socialist principle of cooperation of different countries. The program also emphasized that the party defending the interests of workers and organizes them in the struggle for socialism. Among the members of this party was widely disseminated the idea of ​​the historical rights of the Poles at the non-Polish territory of Poland. One of the first on the subject spoke the famous Polish Socialist S. Mendelson [10, pp.412]. p> Already in the program adopted at the Paris Congress, determined that the new Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Roetsch will be created as a voluntary federation of equal peoples, but it certainly was not determined which areas and peoples must be that federation. Congress called for the creation of the Belarusian Party of socialist orientation, establishing publishing campaign literature in the Belarusian language.

Also in the Paris congress was attended by representatives of the proletariat and the AB II, as well as members ZSPR where he decided to merge their organizations into one party - Polish Socialist Party (PPP). From 1894 on the territory of the Russia Empire were set up party cells and to issue an illegal magazine "Eggman" [19, pp. 19]. p> PPP was not a monolithic party, and soon within the party began to form separate faction. Many members drawn primarily separatist party slogans. On the left flank of PPP supporters were of the world socialist revolution. However, the two factions were behind the intro...

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