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Реферат The emergence of the first Polish socialist parties

duction of more radical methods of struggle, mostly of terrorist methods. From May 1904 to the PSP for example Russian Socialist Party began to create their own fighting organization, is entrusted the execution of death sentences handed down the party king's officials, as well as committing "exes", ie, armed robbery party militants of public insurance schemes [17, pp.119].

Later, at the IV Congress of the PPP (June 1902) in the Paris program was amended, which concretized the previous formulation as follows: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth is a voluntary federation of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine [19, pp.18].

Unlike other Polish Socialist Party, which at first was put building a new socialist society, the program PPP stated that the transition to socialism will happen immediately after the establishment of an independent Polish republic. The main requirements were: 8-hour workday, freedom of speech, labor unions, universal vote by secret ballot, free trials, and education, the elimination of the army and the creation of militias, higher wages [11, pp.466].

In September 1902 from the PPP party cells operating in the territory of Belarus and Lithuania was founded Polish Socialist Party in Lithuania, one of its founders was PI Noises. Lithuanian working committee was in Grodno. Had its party cells in Vilna, Grodno. Bialystok, Brest, Suwalki, Belsky. The organ of the Party was an illegal newspaper "Valka". Published a leaflet in Yiddish, Polish, Belarusian, which presented its program requirements. Invites the independent Lithuania, Belarus and the constituent assembly in Vilna, called for overthrowing the monarchy by making the revolution. It was on the positions of the federation of peoples inhabiting Rossiyskuyu empire [2, pp.96]. p> Part of Polish Socialists (B. Veselovskii) disagreed with the national program of the Party PPP, already in 1893 created a separate political party called the Social Democracy of Poland (SDP), which two years ceased to exist. Magazine "Right Robotnicza became the press organ of the party. Only in January 1900 it was revived and merged with the Workers Union of Lithuania (the union took place at a congress in Minsk), entitled "Social-Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania. The creators of the party were Julian Marhelevsky, Felix Dzerzhinsky, Adolf varsky and the chief party theoretician - Rosa Luxemburg. Program PPP postulate the independence of Poland's leaders SDKPiL considered unattainable utopia because of the full inclusion of lands of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the economic organism of Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary. However SDKPiL was more important to follow the Marxist ideas of an international struggle of the proletariat for the abolition of capitalism and establish a dictatorship [5, pp.55].

Denial of the slogan of Polish independence influenced the fact that Poles are not the party has become very popular, so in 1904 the program was a party in this regard, several modified and, along with socialist slogans slogan appeared on the autonomy of the Polish lands in the Russia Empire [1. with.64].

From the above we can conclude that the emergence of the Polish Socialist Party was a process which is organically linked with the European trend of the growing influence of the labor movement and Marxist ideology. In this process actively incorporated and five Belarusian provinces, where the Polish Socialist Party had a significant constituency. The specificity of the Polish socialist movement in the territory of Belarus was the fact that he actively supported the Polish nobility. This in turn affected the ideological postulates of the Polish Socialist Party, who saw his main task in the acquisition of Polish lands (under this definition, understood the land of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) for a minimum of autonomy within Russia Empire, and the maximum - of national independence, which will in future guarantee of democratic transformations.


1. Burmistrova, TY National question on the programs and tactics of political parties in Russia 1905 - 1917 gg. /TY Burmistrova, VS Gusakova. - Moscow: Mysl, 1976. - 262 pp. p> 2. Voranava, А.І. Rabochy Rukh in Belarus напяреданні Ві В® peryyad ревалюциі 1905 - 1907 gg. /А.І. Voranava. - Мінск: Belarus, 1960. - 234 pp.

3. Studies in the history of the Polish social movement XIX - beg. Twentieth century. - M.: Nauka, 1971. - 415 pp. p> 4. Litvinenok, R. Polish socio-political movement in Belarus and Lithuania and Belarus issues: prev XIX - Beg. The twentieth century/R. Litvinenok/Гістория: PROBLEMS vykladannya. - 1999. - № 2. - S.18-27. p> 5. Літвіненак, R. Польскія партиі satsyyalnay ариентациі in Belarus and Літве (90 gg. XIX century. - PACE. XX cent)/R. Літвіненак/Весці Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Sulfur гуманіта...

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